Gerard of Cremona is an Italian scholar and translator who is credited as one of the leading translators of the late 12th century a i credited with translating over 80 books written in Arabic on science. He arrived at Toledo in 1167, purportedly to find a copy of Ptolemy’s Almagest, the ancient Greek catalogue of scientific knowledge. On arrival he initially had to rely upon Jewish Mozarabs to translate for him. Thereafter he mastered Arabic and began to compile and translate numerous works from Arabic into Latin. . He came to Toledo in 1167 in search of Ptolemy’s Almagest. Since he did not know Arabic when he arrived, he relied on Jews and Mozarabs for translation and teaching.
Among his many translations were the following: (Source Wikipedia)
- Ptolemy‘s Almagest;
- Aristotle‘s Posterior Analytics, Physics, On the Heavens and the World, On Generation and Corruption, and Meteorology;
- al-Khwarizmi‘s On Algebra and Almucabala.
- Archimedes‘ On the Measurement of the Circle;
- Euclid‘s Elements of Geometry,
- Jabir ibn Aflah‘s Elementa astronomica,
- Al-Kindi‘s On Optics,
- al-Farghani‘s On Elements of Astronomy on the Celestial Motions,
- al-Farabi‘s On the Classification of the Sciences,
- al-Razi (Rhazes) chemical and medical works, and
- Thabit ibn Qurra and Hunayn ibn Ishaq.
- Rhazes‘ Liber ad Almansorem, Liber divisionum, Introductio in medicinam, De egritudinibus iuncturarum, Antidotarium and Practica puerorum;
- Isaac Israeli ben Solomon, De elementis and De definitionibus;
- Abulcasis, Al-Tasrif as Chirurgia;
- Avicenna, The Canon of Medicine as Liber Canonis;